In its annual ranking of the world's economies according to innovation capacity and production, the World Innovation Index shows that only a few economies, mostly high-income, systematically dominate the rankings. However, some middle-income economies, such as China, Turkey, Vietnam, India and the Philippines, are recovering the innovation landscape and changing the innovation landscape. North America and Europe continue to lead the global innovation landscape by far as regions. Innovation performance in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania has been the most dynamic in the last decade.
It is the only region that bridges the gap with leaders. However, only Turkey, Viet Nam, India and the Philippines are recovering systematically. Beyond China, these larger economies have the potential to change the global innovation landscape forever. The top three in North Africa and Western Asia (NAWA), excluding island economies.
The region's top four include Israel (first), Cyprus (second), the United Arab Emirates (third) and Turkey (fourth). North America, comprised of the U.S. UU. And Canada remains the most innovative region in the world.
It maintains its third place for the third consecutive year and Canada rises to 16th place. It is a leader in key metrics, such as patents by origin, the quality of its universities and the impact of its scientific publications, and in global companies with an intensive use of 26%. It also houses the largest number (2) of the world's leading science and technology clusters, led by the San José-San Francisco cluster. Canada leads venture capital operations, joint ventures and strategic alliance agreements.
Switzerland remains the world leader in innovation for the eleventh consecutive year and, together with Sweden (it has remained in the top three in the innovation ranking for more than a decade). Switzerland, Sweden and the United Kingdom (have ranked in the top five in the past three years). A total of 10 European economies are climbing positions this year, and France (1) and Estonia (2) are making significant progress. Finland (world leader in the rule of law).
Sweden leads the number of patent families and co-leads international patent applications filed through the WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), together with Switzerland and Norway (20), which rank first in the use of ICT and in spending on education, while the United Kingdom is the leader in the quality of its universities and in the impact of its scientific publications. Switzerland is a regional leader in innovative products and, in particular, in patents by origin and intellectual property certificates. The Republic of Korea increased significantly in innovation results and, in particular, in indicators, brands, global brand value and exports of cultural and creative services. Malaysia (3) has been close to the top 30 for 11 years, but has yet to hit the mark.
Thailand (4), Viet Nam (4), the Philippines (5) and Indonesia (8) have risen between 5 and 40 places in the Global Innovation Index over the past decade. Thailand and Vietnam are among the top 30 in the world due to the sophistication of their markets, and the Philippines does so in terms of its knowledge and technology products. They are now also leaders in other key innovation indicators. Thailand leads in R%26 D financed by companies and Vietnam and the Philippines are world leaders in high-tech exports.
India is second in the lower middle income group. It remains the world leader in the indicator of exports of ICT services and ranks first in others, such as the diversification of the domestic industry and graduates in science and engineering. Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai are among the top 100 science and technology clusters. Eight other economies in the region advance in the ranking, including Oman (7), Egypt (9) and Algeria (120).
Chile has the most balanced innovation system, and ranks well in indicators such as spending on computer software, tertiary enrollment and new companies. Brazil performs well in intellectual property payments and electronic participation; Peru leads in gross lending for microfinance and Costa Rica in exports of cultural and creative services. Mauritius (5), South Africa (6), Kenya (8), Cape Verde (8) and the United Republic of Tanzania (90) lead this region. Only Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania have been firmly in the top 100 and have improved their performance over time.
Mauritius leads venture capital operations. Namibia leads education spending and South Africa in market capitalization. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest number of economies with the highest performance in terms of innovation (and Kenya holds the record for the best results for eleven consecutive years). Published annually, the core of the World Innovation Index provides performance measures and ranks 132 economies according to their innovation ecosystems.
The index is based on a rich set of data — the collection of 81 indicators from international public and private sources — that goes beyond traditional measures of innovation, since the definition of innovation has expanded. It is no longer limited to research and development laboratories (R%26D) and published scientific articles, but is more general and horizontal in nature, including social, business model and technical aspects. For each economy, a one-page profile is produced in which the performance of that economy is recorded in all indicators, relative to all other economies in the Index. The profiles of the economy also highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of innovation of an economy.
With the support of the Portulans Institute, the GII Corporate Network is comprised of the Confederation of Industry of India (the oldest corporate partner since 2000), the Brazilian National Confederation of Industry (partner since 2010), as well as the Turkish Exporters Assembly and the Ecopetrol Group in Colombia, which were joined this year. Their contribution is an important source of influence for the World Innovation Index: after all, companies and private sector entities are at the center of innovation. The Confederation of Industry of India (CII) works to create and maintain an environment conducive to India's development, involving industry, government and civil society by working closely with the Government on political issues, interacting with opinion leaders and improving efficiency, competitiveness and business opportunities for the industry. For more than 125 years, the CII has been dedicated to shaping India's development process and works proactively to transform the participation of Indian industry in national development.
The main business association has more than 9,000 members, both from the public and private sectors, and an indirect membership of more than 300,000 companies from some 294 national and regional sectoral industrial bodies. With 62 offices, including 10 centers of excellence in India and 8 overseas offices in Australia, Egypt, Germany, Indonesia, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and the USA. In the US, as well as institutional partnerships with 394 counterpart organizations in 133 countries, the CII serves as a reference point for Indian industry and the international business community. PI brings together a network of opinion leaders from government, international organizations, the private sector, civil society and academia to promote a business agenda that invests in people, technology and innovation for a prosperous future.
In collaboration with the Portulans Institute, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is publishing the World Innovation Index (GII), founded by Soumitra Dutta and Bruno Lanvin. The World Innovation Index has become a valuable benchmarking tool that can facilitate dialogue between the public and private sectors between policy makers, business leaders and other stakeholders. The Portulans Institute is also home to members of the GII academic and corporate network. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is the global forum for intellectual property policy, services, information and cooperation.
As a specialized agency of the United Nations, WIPO helps its 193 member States to develop a balanced international legal framework on intellectual property that meets the changing needs of society. Provides business services to obtain intellectual property rights in several countries and resolve disputes. Offers capacity-building programs to help developing countries benefit from the use of intellectual property. In addition, it provides free access to unique knowledge banks on intellectual property information.
The development of humanity has always been driven by changes in technology and due to advances in cutting-edge technologies (such as AI, big data, IoT, blockchain, 3D printing, gene editing, etc.). According to data presented at this year's UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), all cutting-edge technologies currently have a market worth 350 billion dollars, with the potential to grow in 2025 to a staggering figure of 3.2 trillion dollars. Switzerland was once again chosen as the number one innovative country in the world. This is the eleventh consecutive time that they have appeared among the 10 most innovative countries, and there are many reasons for this.
Due to its relative lack of natural resources, Switzerland has long focused on research and development. Over time, it has invested in and funded many world-renowned universities. Sweden has a long history of innovation and its startup scene has gained much international attention in recent years. There are several factors why it ranked second on the list.
Like most of the countries on the list, Sweden also emphasizes education. In 1842, the country introduced compulsory education for children ages 7 to 13, and it was a game-changing measure. It is a vital component in Sweden's journey from a poor agricultural nation to a leader in innovation. This country invests, as a general rule, more than 3 percent of the country's domestic product (GDP) in growth in R%26D (research and development).
Another important thing is their infrastructure policies that offer access to technology and the Internet. Among the seven evaluation areas comprising five inputs and two outputs, Korea ranked first in human capital and research, which evaluates investment in the future. South Korea went from tenth place last year to fifth this year in the two production categories, which measure innovation-related activities and achievements, including the growing number of intellectual property applications both in Korea and abroad, even in the midst of the pandemic. The Dutch promote a forward-thinking culture that is open to experimentation and to interdisciplinary ideas.
This open attitude helps Dutch innovators to break the mold time and time again. The government also stimulates innovation by providing a space for the private and research sectors to cooperate. This nation is home to 13 unicorns and ranks fourth in Europe among financial investors who support new ideas. The speed at which Germany adopts new ideas, methods and products places Germany tenth on the list of the 10 most innovative countries in the world.
In addition to its innovative capabilities, Germany's economic stability is extremely good and is an important factor in the development of innovations. Eurostat data show that Germany already spends 3.17% of its GDP on research and innovation, compared to 2.19% of the EU average, making it a world leader in this field and one of the three EU countries that already meet the 3% target. Finland excels in high-tech technology and solutions, and Finnish innovations, such as Linux and text messaging, have shaped the world. Investments in innovative technologies, including digital innovations, the promotion of stronger global collaborations and the search for sustainable innovation ecosystems, will be essential to protect humanity from any similar adverse health crisis scenario.
Denmark's education system, which educates children to challenge authorities and focus on team-building and creative approaches, is one of its main assets when it comes to creating innovative solutions. What enables the innovation process in Finland is a great institutional framework, excellent human capital and research capabilities, developed infrastructure and exceptional business and market sophistication. Danish companies know that innovations and solutions are the best way to generate wealth in a small country with few natural resources. In Colombia, it is the leading company in the hydrocarbon value chain and, internationally, Ecopetrol focuses on strategic basins in the American continent, with E%26P operations in the United States, Brazil and Mexico.
With a developed infrastructure, universities that are by far the best in the world and policies that make it easier for entrepreneurs, small businesses and startups to attract funds and investments, it remained in third place in the Global Innovation Index for another year. In recent decades, the country has established itself as a center for innovation and research and development (R%26D), offering companies around the world a solid platform to grow their businesses in the region and beyond. Brazil is also home to the only science and technology cluster in Latin America among the top 100, with São Paulo in 66th place. .