An invention is a new process, method, composition or device that achieves unique functions. It can be a completely new device or an upgrade to a machine that makes it work more efficiently. Since the beginning of time, human beings have been creating tools and processes that have helped them to tame their environment. Technology has helped shape the world into what it is today, and these important discoveries of the 19th century had a substantial impact on the world as we know it.
The concept of electricity dates back to ancient Greece, when Thales noticed that an electrical charge was produced when amber was rubbed. Scientists also discovered a 2,000-year-old jug in Baghdad in 1938, which is believed to be the world's first example of a battery. The current battery was invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 when he developed his voltaic battery. The voltaic cell could create a stable and reliable flow of electricity.
Volta began his work in 1794 when he noticed an electrical interaction between two metals that were submerged in an acid solution. Using this principle, he designed his battery, which had alternating rings of zinc and copper submerged in an electrolyte. Before the invention of a coffee maker, coffee lovers had to chew their coffee, since the drink was full of ground beans. In 1806, Benjamin Thompson invented a filter coffee maker with a metal cover that helped to drain all the grounds and turned the drink into a refreshing drink instead of a liquid meal.
Thompson developed the coffee maker after his service in the Bavarian Army, where he helped improve their diets. Thompson was a British inventor and physicist whose inventions and challenges in establishing physical theory played a crucial role in the creation of thermodynamics during the 19th century. People have been using substances similar to chewing gum for centuries; in fact, the first erasers were thickened latex or resin obtained from various trees, while others came from waxes, grains, leaves and grasses. American colonists chewed spruce gum and sold it in chunks in the eastern part of the United States in the early 19th century.
The following list (by no means exhaustive) narrates some of the most important innovations that took place in the 19th century. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (along with the independent research of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book On the Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Although both engines and generators experienced substantial improvements in the mid-19th century, their practical use on a large scale was dependent on the subsequent invention of other machines, namely electrically powered trains and electric lighting. In the early 19th century, scientists from Europe and the United States explored the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and their research soon led to practical applications of electromagnetic phenomena.
Thanks to its application in manufacturing and as a source of energy in ships and railway locomotives, the steam engine increased the productive capacity of factories and led to the great expansion of national and international transport networks in the 19th century. Steamboats and other steamships were pioneers in France, Great Britain, and the United States in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. On the other hand, the three-dimensional limitation in geometry was overcome in the 19th century due to considerations of parameter space and hypercomplex numbers. At the end of the 19th century, Georg Cantor established the first foundations of set theory, which allowed for the rigorous treatment of the notion of infinity and has become the common language of almost all mathematics.
Two 19th century inventions, the electric telegraph and the electric telephone, made reliable instant communication over long distances possible for the first time. The 19th century in science saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell, who soon replaced the old term philosopher (natural). Elliptical geometry was developed at the end of the 19th century by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann; no parallels can be found here and the angles of a triangle add up to more than 180°. .